Testosterone function in the body

Kraft, S. (.). Signs of high testosterone in women. Retrieved from  http:///content/article/signs-high-testosterone-women

Low testosterone. (2012, March). Retrieved from  http:///diseases-and-conditions/mens-health/low-testosterone

Nigro, N. & Christ-Cain, M. (2012). Testosterone treatment in the aging male: Myth or reality? Swiss Medicine Weekly, 2012(142), w13539. Retrieved from  http:///content/smw-2012-13539/

NIH-supported trials of testosterone therapy in older men report mixed results. (2017, February 21). Retrieved from  https:///news-events/news-releases/nih-supported-trials-testosterone-therapy-older-men-report-mixed-results

Sharma, R., Oni, O. A., Gupta, K., Chen, G., Sharma, M., Dawn, B., … & Barua, R. S. (2015, August 6). Normalization of testosterone level is associated with reduced incidence of myocardial infarction. European Heart Journal, 36(40), 2706-2715. Retrieved from  https:///eurheartj/article/36/40/2706/2293361/Normalization-of-testosterone-level-is-associated

Sinicki, A. (.). What are prohormones? Are they safe? Retrieved from http:///entry/17328/1/What-Are-Prohormones-And-Are-They-

Testosterone and androgens. (2014, January). Retrieved from  http:///hormones-and-health/hormones/testosterone

Tsujimura, A. (2013, August 31). The relationship between testosterone deficiency and men's health.  The World Journal of Men's Health, 31 (2), 126-135. Retrieved from  http:///pmc/articles/PMC3770847/

Walker, W. H. (2010, May 27). Non-classical actions of testosterone and spermatogenesis.  Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B, 365 (1546). Retrieved from  http:///pmc/articles/PMC2871922/

Wein, H. (2013, September 23). Understanding how testosterone affects men. Retrieved from  https:///news-events/nih-research-matters/understanding-how-testosterone-affects-men

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In 209 community-dwelling men with low T levels (100 to 350 ng/dL [ to  nmol/L]) from Testosterone in Older Men (TOM) with Mobility Limitations Trial, the daily T gel therapy for 6 months improved both leg-press and chest-press strength and stair-climbing power [ 65 ]. Testosterone may also influence muscle metabolism by improving haemoglobin levels in older men with mild anaemia [ 66 , 67 ]. In women, skeletal muscle tissue seems to be sensitive to the anabolic action of androgens [ 68 ]. However, the impact of T administration on full physical function has not been fully studied. The precise molecular mechanisms underlying these observed physical changes in men are likely to include specific T effects on adipocytes and skeletal muscle cell receptors. The binding of T to its receptors could lead to the stimulation of lipolysis and protein synthesis [ 41 , 69 ]. Finally, several lines of evidence support the hypothesis of permissive effects of T on the differentiation of the precursor stromal cells into muscular line [ 70 ].

The second theory is similar and is known as "evolutionary neuroandrogenic (ENA) theory of male aggression". [79] [80] Testosterone and other androgens have evolved to masculinize a brain in order to be competitive even to the point of risking harm to the person and others. By doing so, individuals with masculinized brains as a result of pre-natal and adult life testosterone and androgens enhance their resource acquiring abilities in order to survive, attract and copulate with mates as much as possible. [79] The masculinization of the brain is not just mediated by testosterone levels at the adult stage, but also testosterone exposure in the womb as a fetus. Higher pre-natal testosterone indicated by a low digit ratio as well as adult testosterone levels increased risk of fouls or aggression among male players in a soccer game. [81] Studies have also found higher pre-natal testosterone or lower digit ratio to be correlated with higher aggression in males. [82] [83] [84] [85] [86]

Testosterone function in the body

testosterone function in the body

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