2% to 5%, in my opinion, DOES still meet that criteria, and I believe it to be even larger in virilized women with DSDs. However, I don’t know that it will be enough for CAS, given how often they referred to the 10% to 12% male-female difference in their conclusion previously. So, for the reasons outlined above, I think the IAAF have some evidence of advantage, which confirms physiological theory, but I don’t know that it will be enough to clear the bar that was set by the language and phrasing used by CAS in their conclusion in 2015.
Other side effects include increased risk of heart problems in older men with poor mobility, according to a 2009 study at Boston Medical Center. A 2017 study published in JAMA found that treatments increase coronary artery plaque volume. Additionally, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requires manufactures to include a notice on the labeling that states taking testosterone treatments can lead to possible increased risk of heart attacks and strokes. The FDA recommends that patients using testosterone should seek medical attention right away if they have these symptoms:
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