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In a study published 1997, researchers studied testosterone and health in a sample of 4,393 men between the ages of 32 and 44 who had served in the military between 1965 and 1971. The men were interviewed and medically examined. Testosterone was measured in plasma from blood drawn at 8am. Concentrations ranged from 53 to 1,500 ng/dl with an average of 679. Comparison of men with slightly below average levels of testosterone (400ng/dl) with men with slightly above average levels (800ng/dl) revealed significant differences in health indicators.
More recently, androgen receptors have been shown to have a second mode of action. As has been also found for other steroid hormone receptors such as estrogen receptors , androgen receptors can have actions that are independent of their interactions with DNA.   Androgen receptors interact with certain signal transduction proteins in the cytoplasm. Androgen binding to cytoplasmic androgen receptors can cause rapid changes in cell function independent of changes in gene transcription, such as changes in ion transport . Regulation of signal transduction pathways by cytoplasmic androgen receptors can indirectly lead to changes in gene transcription, for example, by leading to phosphorylation of other transcription factors.