Haloperidol decanoate vs lactate

Haloperidol is a typical butyrophenone type antipsychotic that exhibits high affinity dopamine D 2 receptor antagonism and slow receptor dissociation kinetics. [42] It has effects similar to the phenothiazines . [17] The drug binds preferentially to D 2 and α 1 receptors at low dose (ED 50 = and  mg/kg, respectively), and 5-HT 2 receptors at a higher dose (ED 50 =  mg/kg). Given that antagonism of D 2 receptors is more beneficial on the positive symptoms of schizophrenia and antagonism of 5-HT 2 receptors on the negative symptoms, this characteristic underlies haloperidol's greater effect on delusions, hallucinations and other manifestations of psychosis. [43] Haloperidol's negligible affinity for histamine H 1 receptors and muscarinic M 1 acetylcholine receptors yields an antipsychotic with a lower incidence of sedation, weight gain, and orthostatic hypotension though having higher rates of treatment emergent extrapyramidal symptoms .

A twenty-week double-blind study was conducted to compare the efficacy and side-effect profile of haloperidol decanoate and fluphenazine decanoate, both given four-weekly, in fifty-one chronic schizophrenic patients. The mean dose of fluphenazine decanoate was 84 mg compared to 122 mg for the haloperidol decanoate group--suggesting a potency ratio of : in this study population. The CPRS sub-scale for schizophrenic symptoms showed a statistically significant improvement (p. less than ) for the haloperidol decanoate group after twenty weeks treatment. A significant difference favouring haloperidol decanoate (p. less than ) was also shown in the CPRS depression sub-scale at the end of the study. No significant between-group differences were found in the incidence of extrapyramidal side-effects at week 20, though consumption of the antiparkinsonian medication orphenadrine was significantly higher (p. less than ) in the fluphenazine decanoate group (mean dose 102 mg) compared to a mean dose of 58 mg for the haloperidol decanoate group. More patients on fluphenazine decanoate gained weight than patients on haloperidol decanoate, but the difference was not statistically significant.

The mechanisms of variable response to tamoxifen have been the subject of much scrutiny in the published literature. Early studies attempting to link a clinical response to tamoxifen therapy with plasma tamoxifen concentrations reported no statistically significant differences in outcomes between women who received 20 mg of tamoxifen daily and those who received 40 mg of tamoxifen daily, even though women in the 40 mg tamoxifen group had higher plasma tamoxifen concentrations than those in the 20 mg tamoxifen group. These results have been reported as evidence that plasma tamoxifen concentration is not a predictor of clinical outcome.  Because there is evidence that tamoxifen is converted to anti-estrogenic metabolites, one hypothesis is that altered patterns of metabolism of tamoxifen might contribute to inter-individual variability in effects (Jin et al, 2005).  Plasma concentrations of the active tamoxifen metabolite endoxifen are associated with the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 genotype.

This topic addresses the use of LAI antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia. The pharmacology, administration, comparative side effects and treatment of schizophrenia with standard (non-LAI) antipsychotics are discussed separately as is the management of antipsychotic side effects. The epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis of schizophrenia are discussed separately. (See "Pharmacotherapy for schizophrenia: Acute and maintenance phase treatment" and "First-generation antipsychotic medications: Pharmacology, administration, and comparative side effects" and "Second-generation antipsychotic medications: Pharmacology, administration, and side effects" and "Pharmacotherapy for schizophrenia: Side effect management" and "Schizophrenia in adults: Clinical manifestations, course, assessment, and diagnosis" and "Schizophrenia in adults: Epidemiology and pathogenesis" .)

Haloperidol decanoate vs lactate

haloperidol decanoate vs lactate

This topic addresses the use of LAI antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia. The pharmacology, administration, comparative side effects and treatment of schizophrenia with standard (non-LAI) antipsychotics are discussed separately as is the management of antipsychotic side effects. The epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis of schizophrenia are discussed separately. (See "Pharmacotherapy for schizophrenia: Acute and maintenance phase treatment" and "First-generation antipsychotic medications: Pharmacology, administration, and comparative side effects" and "Second-generation antipsychotic medications: Pharmacology, administration, and side effects" and "Pharmacotherapy for schizophrenia: Side effect management" and "Schizophrenia in adults: Clinical manifestations, course, assessment, and diagnosis" and "Schizophrenia in adults: Epidemiology and pathogenesis" .)

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